 # Parallelism and Performance

## Speedup

The speed of a program is the time it takes the program to execute. This could be measured in any increment of time. Speedup is defined as the time it takes a program to execute sequentially (with one processor) divided by the time it takes to execute in parallel (with many processors). The formula for speedup is:

$$S_p = \frac{T_1}{T_p}$$

Where:

• $$S_p$$ is the speedup obtained from using $$p$$ processors.

• $$T_1$$ is the time it takes the program to be executed sequentially.

• $$T_p$$ is the time it takes the program to be executed in parallel using $$p$$ processors.

## Linear Speedup

Linear speedup or ideal speedup is obtained when $$S_p = p$$. When running an algorithm with linear speedup, doubling the number of processors doubles the speed. As this is ideal, it is considered very good scalability.

## Amdahl's Law

Amdahl's law states that the speedup of a program using multiple processors in parallel computing is limited by the time needed for the sequential fraction of the program.

As a formula:

$$S_p = \frac{1}{F+\frac{1 - F}{p}}$$

Where:

• $$p$$ is the number of processors.

• $$S_p$$ is the speedup obtained from using $$p$$ processors.

• $$F$$ is the fraction of the program that must be executed sequentially. $$0 \le F \le 1$$.

If $$p$$ tends to $$\infty$$, the maximum speedup tends to $$\frac{1}{F}$$.

### Reference:

[AKHTER] pp. 13-15.